The use of agrochemicals, though has increased the agricultural productivity, has severely adversely affected soil and aquatic systems with associated flora and fauna and also the health of the farmers and society consuming the chemically grown food. Therefore, the advent of nano-agrochemicals, such as nanopesticides, nanofertilizers and nanosensors, designed to increase solubility, enhances bioavailability and promotes targeted delivery, and their controlled release will have immense potential benefits that include efficient dosage of fertilizers, improved vector and pest management, reduced chemical pollution and ultimately increased agricultural productivity. However, many questions remain unresolved on the toxicology and safety of these systems to human and ecosystems health. Risk assessment of this technology lags far behind its application. This chapter will therefore discuss the nano-ecotoxicology and risks, uncertainties, and ethical concerns of use of nanotechnology in agriculture. Furthermore, the current levels of public awareness and perception of nanotechnology will be discussed.
Part of the book: New Visions in Plant Science