Sugarcane is one of the most important crops for sugar production in sugarcane-growing areas. Many biotic and abiotic stresses affected the sugarcane production which leads to severe losses. Pokkah boeng is now playing a very important role due to its economic threats. Currently, the occurrence and rigorousness of pokkah boeng disease have been spread like wildfire from major sugarcane-growing countries. Pokkah boeng is a fungal disease that can cause serious yield losses in susceptible varieties. Infection of the disease is caused either by spores or ascospores. It may cause serious yield losses in commercial plantings. However, there have been many reported outbreaks of the disease which have looked spectacular but have caused trade and industry loss. Fusarium species complex is the major causal agent of this disease around the world, but some researchers have documented the increased importance of Fusarium. Three Fusarium species have been identified to cause the sugarcane pokkah boeng disease in China. Moreover, Fusarium may be accompanied of its mycotoxin production, genomic sequencing, and association with nitrogen application in China. Many studies on disease investigations, breeding of disease-resistant varieties, and strategy of disease control have also been carried out in China.
Part of the book: Fusarium
Rice false smut (RFS) is the most important grain disease in rice production worldwide. Its epidemics not only lead to yield loss but also reduce grain quality because of multiple mycotoxins generated by the causative pathogen, Villosiclava virens (anamorph: Ustilaginoidea virens). The pathogen infects developing spikelets and specifically converts individual grain into a RFS ball that is established from mycelia covered with powdery chlamydospores, sometimes generating sclerotia. RFS balls seem to be randomly formed in some grains on a panicle of a plant in the paddy field. However, epidemics differ largely among varieties, fields, and seasons. This chapter introduces current understanding on the disease, mycotoxins, the biology of the pathogen, pathogenesis of RFS, rice resistance, the disease cycle, the disease control, and assay.
Part of the book: Protecting Rice Grains in the Post-Genomic Era