The lack of toxicological data on nanomaterials makes it difficult to assess the risk related to their exposure, and as a result further investigation is required. This chapter presents the synthesis of controlled oxide nanoparticles followed by the evaluation of their safety profile or toxicity (iron, titanium and zinc oxides). The controlled surface chemistry, dispersion in several media, morphology and surface charge of these nanoparticles are presented (transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Classical cytotoxic and cellular uptake studies on different cancer cell lines from liver, prostate, heart, brain and spinal cord are discussed. The incidence of nanoparticles on biogenesis and activity of cell organelles is also highlighted, as well as their biodistribution in animal models. The acute toxicity on zebrafish embryo model is also presented. Finally, the stress is put on the influence and the necessity of controlling the protein corona, a layer of plasma proteins physically adsorbed at the surface of such nanoparticles as a result of their presence in the bloodstream (or relevant biological fluids).
Part of the book: Unraveling the Safety Profile of Nanoscale Particles and Materials