Many cassava producing nations lack suitable energy availability and sufficiency. Just 10% of the population in Haiti receive power from the national electric grid. The proportion is 7% for Mozambique. In both countries, deforestation is extensive due to dependence on wood and charcoal for 70 and 85% of energy requirement respectively. In the case of Ghana, although biomass accounts for 64% of national energy supply, the dependence on primary biomass energy sources like wood and charcoal has led to increased loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and health problems. Prospects for the use of cassava peeling residues as a source of biomethane to mitigate these constraints have received little attention. In this chapter, the advantages and benefits of biomass energy, along with the potential for cassava as a feedstock and rationale for anaerobic digestion are highlighted. Depending on the quantity of cassava root processed by individual countries, the energy recovered from cassava peeling residues could satisfy up to 100% of national energy requirements.
Part of the book: Cassava
Circular economic paradigm applies residue from one process as input material for another, fostering sustainable benefits for humanity. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology for biogas production in a circular economy. Digestate is the residual organic matter generated as coproduct of biogas. Because digestate is nutrient rich and largely stabilized, it has varied management options. Digestate is suitable for direct use as bio-fertilizer and is a good amendment material to improve soil physical properties. However, the quality, safety, and utility of digestate are dependent upon the characteristics of feedstock, digester process, pre- and post- digestion treatments. Digestates emanating from AD of animal manure, energy crops, food processing residues, and other feedstocks have been reported in published literature. On the other hand, there is dearth of reports on digestate emanating from AD process that utilized cassava peeling residue (CPR) as sole feedstock. This chapter presents relevant information on digestates including production, feedstock, quality and safety requirements, processing and treatment technologies, regulatory aspects, applications management options, cost implications, as well as challenges and opportunities. In addition, new results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) compositions of liquid fraction of CPR digestate are reported.
Part of the book: Renewable Energy