Despite the rapid development of therapeutic modalities for advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) over the past decade to include traditional immunotherapy, such as high-dose interleukin-2 and interferon-α, as well as a number of targeted antiangiogenic therapies, mRCC continues to be associated with poor prognosis. Currently, immunotherapy has seen tremendous development in the form of immune checkpoint inhibition and vaccines at a dizzying pace, which are being studied in mRCC and are showing promise as important steps in the management of this disease. With so many drugs available to clinicians and patients, properly integrating immunotherapy especially immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) into the treatment paradigm is challenging. Emerging research with additional ICB agents and novel combination strategies is likely to further impact clinical decision-making. The further development of biomarkers for predicting a response is required to achieve optimal efficacy with these therapeutic interventions. This chapter summarizes the current landscape of standard and emerging immune therapeutics and other modalities for mRCC.
Part of the book: Evolving Trends in Kidney Cancer