Part of the book: An Integrated View of the Molecular Recognition and Toxinology
Almost all kidney cancers are associated to immune dysfunction. Among these, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents approximately 2% of malignancies that affect adults and for 90–95% of all kidney cancers. Recent evidences have collaborated to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the development of this disease. In this view, dysfunctional neutrophil migration, as well as T lymphocyte-DC (dendritic cell) cross talk, DC maturation, immune cell metabolism, and reactivity and abnormal expression of cytokines and chemokines and their receptors have been highlighted in RCC and stroma cells. A rational development of novel therapies to recover antitumor activity of immune system is closely related to the understanding of the complex interactions between immune system and tumor. Some insights have been reached and immunomodulatory molecules, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IFN-α, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and chemokines antagonists have shown clinical efficacy. In this chapter, we overview the essential role of innate and adaptive immune response in RCC and discuss drugs approved or in development for its treatment.
Part of the book: Evolving Trends in Kidney Cancer
This chapter will focus on anticoagulant molecules described until now from hematophagous animals. The evolutionary scenario for hematophagous animals is convergent and has resulted on a wide diversity of saliva anticoagulants, substances with platelet anti-aggregation action, and also with vase-dilating action. Hematophagous animals such as bloodsuckers (leeches, mosquitoes, and ticks) have developed strategies that specifically target proteinases from the hemostatic system of the animals they feed, thus keeping the blood incoagulable. The saliva of those animals provides a large amount of molecules to modulate the innate immune response of the host and to inhibit blood coagulation in order to facilitate the feeding. Thus, anticoagulants from hematophagous animals represent a very interesting tool for studies ranging from basic research to applications in the therapeutic area, as anticoagulant medication. Several studies have pointed out that anticoagulants from hematophagous can also display non-hemostatic functions as anti-tumor, bringing new perspectives for the study of these molecules. The comprehension of the multi-faced physiological roles of those new anticoagulants from hematophagous opens new perspectives for therapeutic and biotechnological approaches.
Part of the book: Anticoagulant Drugs