In this chapter, we review the controlling of the microstructures, the properties, and the different methods to obtain titanium dioxide and the application of these materials on solar cells. We will concentrate on the application of efficient solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the first section, we provide a background on energy, including its sources—photovoltaics and titanium dioxide—and the advantages of their application in solar cells. The second section outlines the different methods to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The shapes of titanium dioxide are explored in the third section. In the fourth section, we discuss the use and effect of the titanium dioxide in the efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, and the last section is a summary of the current state of the art and perspectives of titanium dioxide for efficient solar cells.
Part of the book: Titanium Dioxide
The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been reached the initial value when they emerged as dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in 2012. Immediately, the interests were drawn in this field worldwide. The researchers have improved the efficiency of PSCs up-to 22%, which was originally started from its initial value of 3.8%, just in 7 years. The rendering of long‐term stabilization and effective cost have special importance for PSCs since the instability issue remained idle in spite of those recently increased efficiency values attained by various research groups. In this way, the better improvements of PSC may increase extraordinary exhibitions as compared to alternate solar cells like organic solar cell (OSC) or DSSC devices. This chapter begins with a general discussion on the requirement for an economical clean energy conversion device. In section 2, fundamental properties of PSC are fit together with their device architecture and working mechanism. In section 3 proceeds with a review on fundamental photovoltaic parameters joined by current-voltage hysteresis. Furthermore, the stability and cost issues will be discussed in Sections 4 and 5. In the end of this chapter, we are discussing the challenges and opportunities based on the chapter content.
Part of the book: Emerging Solar Energy Materials
Functional magnetic materials, also called the smart materials of the future, are a group of materials having important and interesting physical properties, which can be affected when an external magnetic field is applied. They are intriguing models that have a strong impact on improving different technologies. Their magnetic response to an external magnetic field can be represented as paramagnetic, diamagnetic, ferromagnetic, or antiferromagnetic. Compared with bulk materials, they show uncommon magnetic behavior as a result of their surface/interface effects, electronic charge transfer, and magnetic interactions. They can be used in different vital applications like data storage systems, refrigeration, magnetic recording, and medical studies. In this chapter, essential attractive magnetic properties that are relevant to different applications will be explained.
Part of the book: Functional Materials