Malaria remains the deadliest vector-borne disease in the world. With nearly half of the world’s population at risk, 216 million people suffered from malaria in 2016, with over 400,000 deaths, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Important global efforts have been made to eliminate malaria leading to significant reduction in malaria cases and mortality in Africa by 42% and 66%, respectively. Early diagnosis, improved drug therapies and better health infrastructure are key components, but this extraordinary success is mainly due the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprayings (IRS) of insecticide. Unfortunately, the emergence and spread of resistance in mosquito populations against insecticides is jeopardising the effectiveness of the most efficient malaria control interventions. To help establish suitable resistance management strategies, it is vital to better understand the distribution of resistance, its mechanisms and impact on effectiveness of control interventions and malaria transmission. In this chapter, we present the current status of insecticide resistance worldwide in main malaria vectors as well as its impact on malaria transmission, and discuss the molecular mechanisms and future perspectives.
Part of the book: Towards Malaria Elimination