This chapter discusses the unique characteristics of the volcanic eruptions in Indonesia. We know that Indonesia has 147 volcanoes and 76 of them are active volcanoes and spread along the islands of Java, Lesser Sunda, Sumatra, and Celebes. The characteristics of Indonesian volcanoes are quite unique in terms of the formation process, eruption phenomenon, and the resulting natural disasters. Most volcanoes in Indonesia consist of stratovolcanoes, but this does not mean that the resulting eruptions are always explosive and they have a long period. This can be seen from the activity of Semeru that always erupts effusively every day, Sinabung that has a very short eruption period, Tangkuban Perahu eruption that occurs suddenly with the lack of early signs, and Merapi and Kelud that have eruption period that is getting shorter. Based on the results of our study it can be known that the types of volcanic eruption are influenced by the structure of the constituent rocks of the volcanoes. However, the presence of external control factors in the form of large-scale earthquakes will affect their periodicity. The large earthquakes can affect the stability of the magma chamber that can trigger a premature eruption.
Part of the book: Volcanoes
Kelud is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia and suffered a major eruption in 2014. Although they are not part of the super volcano, the impact of the eruption is extraordinary. However, the eruption is not too worrying for the surrounding community. The lack of disaster victims caused by the eruption in 2014 became a successful representation of disaster mitigation models owned by local communities in answering the eruption problem. The easy evacuation process and quickly post-eruption rehabilitation illustrate a pattern of environmental adaptation around the volcano. This discussion focuses on how the people behavior around the volcano in responding to the challenge of eruption? How the role of local government in preparing the community in the face of an eruption, and what actions are done so that the rehabilitation process can take place quickly? To answer all these questions, the researchers collected relevant data through observation, documentation, and interviews with the local communities and local government representatives directly involved in disaster mitigation measures. In addition, the researchers also revealed local traditions that are considered capable of supporting the process of preparing the community in answering the eruption challenges and becoming part of disaster mitigation in the volcanic region.
Part of the book: Natural Hazards