A design strategy based on integration of the building form and structure with its external environment in order to take advantage of natural forces (wind and buoyancy effects) has been evaluated in terms of risk and reliability measures. Tools for the probabilistic analysis (First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), Monte Carlo) have been presented and applied in the probabilistic modelling and sensitivity analysis of the response function of the studied building physics problem. Sensitivity analysis of the influence of basic random variables on the probability distribution of a response function is straightforward in FORM methodology. The case-based studies of probabilistic modelling of uncertainties coupled to wind speed and temperature difference through the specified building/environment system have been presented (i.e., the distribution models of the air change rate ACH and the dynamic U value characterising thermal performance of dynamic insulation). Sensitivities of the probability model of ACH to the parameters of wind speed and temperature distributions have been estimated for the consecutive values of the air change rate using FORM methodology. Reliability of ACH turned out to be most sensitive to the shape parameter of the wind speed distribution (in two-parameter Weibull model). The probabilistic risk analysis along with the effective tools for sensitivity analysis can be used to support design decisions and also to develop better models for evaluation of building performance.
Part of the book: Risk Assessment
Construction projects constitute complex and dynamic systems, which pose high health and safety risks to the practitioners. As a result, many researchers have underscored the importance of risk management that requires inputs from all stakeholders across different stages of the construction project from the design up to the construction phase. However, there is a limited knowledge about stakeholders’ influence on health and safety risk management in building construction projects in Tanzania. To fill this gap, a case study approach was employed to analyse three large ongoing construction projects in Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaire survey and in-depth interview with a range of stakeholders: clients, consultants, contractors, workers and regulatory agencies. From the findings and with reference to literature, the systems thinking approach was used to develop a model showing the stakeholders’ influence on health and safety risk management. The pattern of relationships between different stakeholders and the capacity of the system to offer health and safety control was traced using the results of the case studies of the three projects. The study confirms that there is a link chain relationship when stakeholders influence the health and safety risk management at the following stages of the construction projects in Tanzania.
Part of the book: Risk Management in Construction Projects