Despite excellent self-regeneration capacity of bone tissue, there are some large bone defects that cannot be healed spontaneously. Numerous literature data in the field of cell-based bone tissue engineering showed that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) after isolation could be subsequently applied in a one-step approach for treatment of bone defect, without previous in vitro expansion and osteoinduction. However, standard approaches usually involve in vitro expansion and osteoinduction of ADSCs as an additional preparation step before its final application. Bioreactors are also used for the preparation of ADSC-based graft prior application. The commonly used approaches are reviewed, and their outcomes, advantages, disadvantages, as well as their potential for successful application in the treatment of bone defects are discussed. Difficulty in spontaneous healing of bone defects is very often due to poor vascularization. To overcome this problem, numerous methods in bone tissue engineering (BTE) were developed. We focused on freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and ADSCs in vitro induced into endothelial cells (ECs) as cells with vasculogenic capacity for the further application in bone defect treatment. We have reviewed orthotopic and ectopic models in BTE that include the application of SVFs or ADSCs in vitro induced into ECs, with special reference to co-cultivation.
Part of the book: Clinical Implementation of Bone Regeneration and Maintenance
The Mediterranean region encompasses countries that surround Mediterranean Sea. Due to its position at the intersection of Eurasia and Africa it has often been a route of human migrations during history, which contributed to its high biodiversity. People living in this area had been exposed to the episodes of natural selection that led to the establishment of specific genetic variations, for which is thought to carry a certain adaptation. Some recent studies have shown that genetic adaptations are probably related to the immune defense against infectious pathogens. One of the most recognizable disease of the region is familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a prototype of a monogenic autoinflammatory disease. FMF is predisposed by the mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene that encodes inflammasome regulatory protein - pyrin. Specific variations of several other genes have been proposed to confer a protection against Plasmodium malariae parasite. Some of these are hemoglobin S (HbS), thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis, and mutation in the Duffy antigen (FY). In this chapter we will summarize important genetics and pathogenesis features of diseases commonly encountered in the Mediterranean region with a short discussion of potential adaptations that they may carry.
Part of the book: Genetic Variation