Dr Alfan A. Rija was born in Kigoma Region of western Tanzania. He is a Lecturer in conservation and ecology at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania. He has a PhD degree in Biology specializing in spatial patterns of illegal activities in protected areas from the University of York in UK (2017), MSc Conservation Biology from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (2009) and BSc Wildlife Management from SUA(2003). Dr Rija’s research interests span a wide range of themes focusing on understanding the intricate interactions between humans and the wildlife and biodiversity to designing appropriate strategies for sustainability. He has over 15 years of experiences working at the forefront of conservation challenges in protected areas in Tanzania and has researched and published widely on related fields.