Surgical treatment of coronary artery disease should increase regional coronary flow reserve and not increase any early or late morbidity and mortality more than the other treatment modalities. In the past 50 years, surgical treatment of coronary artery disease has been adapted rapidly worldwide and several techniques have been developed to decrease total surgical risks and to improve early and late results with the highest level of quality of life. In spite of the last guidelines that offer stents for single or multiple vessels disease, the fact is that surgical revascularization has better outcomes in all groups of coronary artery patients. In the past two decades, the main target has been to limit or eliminate side effects of extracorporeal circulation and cardioplegia (off-pump), and general anesthesia (awake coronary bypass). The prime goal of surgical revascularization is to obtain complete revascularization by bypassing all severe stenotic coronary arteries having a diameter larger than 1 mm. Surgical revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass through a full sternotomy remains the most widely used surgical technique. With the development of stabilization devices, off-pump procedures can be safely performed in most patients with single or multivessel disease. Minimal invasive and/or robotic surgery is an attractive procedure to catch invasive cardiology. The gold standard strategy involves single graft to single target vessel bypass, especially the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. The early cumulative mortality rate is below 3%, but lower than 1% in lower-risk patients. There are some variables most predictive of early mortality: older age, female, reoperation, non-elective surgery, left ventricular dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis. The survival rate is higher than 65% for 15 years. Late mortality is dependent not only on non-use of internal mammarian artery, closure of grafts, progression of native arterial disease but also on comorbidities. Satisfactory quality of life after surgery depends on the long-term duration of the freedom from angina, heart failure, rehospitalization and reintervention, and improvement of the exercise capacity. Return of angina during the first 6 months depends on incomplete revascularization or graft failure, whereas progression of native-vessel disease and grafts are serious risk factors for the late recurrence of angina. Venous graft occlusion is the most common reason for reintervention, and native vessel disease is the second.
Part of the book: Coronary Artery Disease
Atherosclerosis is a vascular disorder consisting of thickening of arteries and lack of elasticity. Result of atherosclerosis is that arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive buildup of plaque around the artery wall. The disease disrupts the flow of blood around the body, posing serious cardiovascular complications. Arteries contain what is called an endothelium, a thin layer of cells that keeps the artery smooth and allows blood to flow easily. Endothelial damage starts the first step of atherosclerosis. After this, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol accumulates in the artery wall. Inflammatory process starts after this accumulation, and macrophages reach the endothelium to clean up cholesterol. But some macrophages are stuck in the affected part of the artery wall in this process. Over time, this results in plaque being built up, consisting of cholesterol and macrophage white blood cells. The plaque clogs up the artery, disrupting the flow of blood. This potentially causes blood clots that can result in life-threatening conditions such as heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis can be seen in all arteries in the body. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of death in the western countries. Some risk factors are as follows: age, sex, familial predisposition, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity, etc. Whatever the main reason or the risk factor is, once atherosclerosis is formed, several life-threatening cardiovascular disorders can be seen. So, it has to be revealed.
Part of the book: Atherosclerosis