Photonic crystals (PhCs) can be utilized to control the propagation behaviors of light within a frequency band (i.e., conduction band or stop band) for their periodic arrangements of dielectric. Utilizing the effect of band gap one may introduce defects in a photonic crystal to limit or guide the electromagnetic wave with the frequency in stop gaps. Furthermore, based on synthetic periodic dielectric materials photonic crystals can exhibit various anomalous transmission properties, such as negative refraction, self-focusing, zero phase delay or effective-zero-index properties that are determined by the characteristics of their band structures and equal frequency contours (EFC). These extraordinary results contributing to the design of novel PhC devices and the development of PhC application are demonstrated in this chapter.
Part of the book: Theoretical Foundations and Application of Photonic Crystals