The use of herbal medicine has been on an increase over time. The most commonly used herbs are ginger, cranberry, valerian, raspberry leaf, chamomile, peppermint, thyme, fenugreek, green tea, sage, anise, garlic and bitter kola. The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is associated with educational status of women, income level of household and age of women. Herbal medicines were used during pregnancy to treat nausea and vomiting, reduce the risk of preeclampsia, shorten labour and treat common cold and urinary tract infection. Using herbal medicine occasionally causes trouble. Heartburn, pre-mature labour, miscarriage, increase in blood flow, abortion and allergic reactions are the common troubles of herbal medicine use during pregnancy. Using herbal medicine during the first trimester and the third trimester is unsafe for the foetus. Pregnant women should talk to health professionals before consuming any herbal medicines. The unfortunate consequences of using herbal medicine during pregnancy need further study for various herbs. Therefore, clinical trial research should be done to identify unfortunate consequences of herbal medicine use during pregnancy.
Part of the book: Herbal Medicine
Cervical cancer is caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). It is the second most common cancer in women living low developed countries. The components of cervical cancer prevention and control comprises primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention of cervical cancer encompasses prevention of infection with HPV. Giving HPV vaccine for girls aged 9–14 years before they initiate sexual activity is one of the interventions of primary prevention of cervical cancer. Screening and treatment is needed in secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Screening of cervical cancer encompasses testing a target group (women) who are at risk for a cervical pre-cancer. Tertiary prevention of cervical cancer comprises treatment of cervical cancer and palliative care. The components of tertiary care comprise surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and palliative care. Community mobilization, health education and counseling on cervical cancer prevention and control is vital to make ownership on cervical prevention. Monitoring and evaluation of cervical cancer prevention and control on key program indicators should be done regularly.
Part of the book: Cervical Cancer
Malnutrition is defined as deficiency or excess of nutrition consumption. It is can be undernutrition and overnutrition. Malnutrition contributed to more than third of child death. There is no single cause of malnutrition. The causes of malnutrition can be categorized as immediate, underlying, and basic. The immediate-level causes of malnutrition comprise inadequate dietary intake and disease conditions. The underlying-level causes include insufficient household food security, inadequate social and care environment and insufficient health service, and unhealthy environment. The basic-level causes of malnutrition consist climate variability and extremes, sociocultural, economic, and political context. Undernutrition is specifically caused by deficiency of energy, vitamin, and minerals. Overnutrition is specifically is caused by overconsumption of energy and micronutrients. The causes of overnutrition are not clearly put in many studies. Therefore, studies that focus on cause of overnutrition should be done by incorporating both developed and undeveloped countries.
Part of the book: Combating Malnutrition Through Sustainable Approaches