Much more specialists are nowadays aligning themselves on the view according to which the prevalence of cardiovascular disease will reach epidemic levels in the near future due to the increase of hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Most epidemiological studies indicate that we are confronted with a multiplication of risk factors, with an emphasis on their genetic conditioning as well as an acceleration of the effects generated by non-genetic factors. According to WHO recommendations, the appropriate methods of reducing the cardiovascular risk are those that combine health policies with efficient education measures. Long-term results of these measures aim to decrease the incidence of complications and associated costs with their treatment at the same time with increasing the quality of life. Approximately 50% of deaths from heart disease could be prevented through sustained action on the main cause—hypertension—and by treating risk factors, primarily hyperlipidemia and elevated body weight. Atherosclerotic disease requires a rigorous approach because identifying predisposing risk factors with proven implications in the initiation and progression of this disease, as well as modulation of those with protective role, can have a significant impact in finding an appropriate treatment in order to improve cardiovascular diseases and their consequences.
Part of the book: Recent Trends in Cardiovascular Risks
Fracture treatment has experienced a fascinating evolution in the last years. The aim of this chapter is to reveal some clinical and biomechanical studies regarding innovative implants. After a short introduction (1), we intend to present our results regarding (2) dynamic condylar screw versus condylar blade plate in complex supracondylar femoral fractures; (3) biomechanical analysis of four types of implants in humeral fractures; (4) clinical and experimental studies for optimal stabilization of trochanteric fractures: the gliding nail; (5) intramedullary XS nail for pilon and ankle fractures: design, biomechanics, and clinical results; (6) the XS nail for the treatment of patella and olecranon fractures; and (7) plates with polyaxial stability for fractures of distal radius and proximal humerus. In conclusion, the authors highlight the advantages of these innovative implants in difficult trauma cases.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Biomechanics