We have performed a review of systemic risks in smart cities dependent on intelligent and partly autonomous transport systems. Smart cities include concepts such as smart transportation/use of autonomous transportation systems (i.e., autonomous cars, subways, shipping, drones) and improved management of infrastructure (power and water supply). At the same time, this requires safe and resilient infrastructures and need for global collaboration. One challenge is some sort of risk based regulation of emergent vulnerabilities. In this paper we focus on emergent vulnerabilities and discussion of how mitigation can be organized and structured based on emergent and known scenarios cross boundaries. We regard a smart city as a software ecosystem (SEC), defined as a dynamic evolution of systems on top of a common technological platform offering a set of software solutions and services. Software ecosystems are increasingly being used to support critical tasks and operations. As a part of our work we have performed a systematic literature review of safety, security and resilience software ecosystems, in the period 2007–2016. The perspective of software ecosystems has helped to identify and specify patterns of safety, security and resilience on a relevant abstraction level. Significant vulnerabilities and poor awareness of safety, security and resilience has been identified. Key actors that should increase their attention are vendors, regulators, insurance companies and the research community. There is a need to improve private-public partnership and to improve the learning loops between computer emergency teams, security information providers (SIP), regulators and vendors. There is a need to focus more on safety, security and resilience and to establish regulations of responsibilities on the vendors for liabilities.
Part of the book: Risk Assessment