The stochastic resonance (SR) is the phenomenon which can emerge in nonlinear dynamic systems. In general, it is related with a bistable nonlinear system of Duffing type under additive excitation combining deterministic periodic force and Gaussian white noise. It manifests as a stable quasiperiodic interwell hopping between both stable states with a small random perturbation. Classical definition and basic features of SR are regarded. The most important methods of investigation outlined are: analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical procedures of governing physical systems or relevant Fokker-Planck equation. Stochastic simulation is mentioned and experimental way of results verification is recommended. Some areas in Engineering Dynamics related with SR are presented together with a particular demonstration observed in the aeroelastic stability. Interaction of stationary and quasiperiodic parts of the response is discussed. Some nonconventional definitions are outlined concerning alternative operators and driving processes are highlighted. The chapter shows a large potential of specific basic, applied and industrial research in SR. This strategy enables to formulate new ideas for both development of nonconventional measures for vibration damping and employment of SR in branches, where it represents an operating mode of the system itself. Weaknesses and empty areas where the research effort of SR should be oriented are indicated.
Part of the book: Resonance
Hamiltonian functional and relevant Lagrange’s equations are popular tools in the investigation of dynamic systems. Various generalizations enable to extend the class of problems concerned slightly beyond conventional limits of Hamiltonian system. This strategy is very effective, particularly concerning two-dimensional (2D) and simpler three-dimensional (3D) systems. However, the governing differential systems of most non-holonomic 3D systems suffer from inadequate complexity, when deduced using this way. Any analytical investigation of such a governing system is rather impossible and its physical interpretation can be multivalent. For easier analysis, particularly of systems with non-holonomic constraints, the Appell-Gibbs approach seems to be more effective providing more transparent governing systems. In general, the Appell-Gibbs approach follows from the Gaussian fifth form of the basic principle of dynamics. In this chapter, both Lagrangian and Appell-Gibbs procedures are shortly characterized and later their effectiveness compared on a particular dynamic system of a ball moving inside a spherical cavity under external excitation. Strengths and shortcomings of both procedures are evaluated with respect to applications.
Part of the book: Nonlinear Systems
Ball-type tuned mass absorbers are growing in popularity. They combine a multi-directional effect with compact dimensions, properties that make them attractive for use at slender structures prone to wind excitation. Their main drawback lies in limited adjustability of damping level to a prescribed value. Insufficient damping makes ball-type absorbers more prone than pendula to objectionable effects stemming from the non-linear character of the system. Thus, the structure and design of the damping device have to be made so that the autoparametric resonance states, occurrence of which depends on system parameters and properties of possible excitation, are avoided for safety reasons. This chapter summarises available 3D mathematical models of a ball-pendulum and introduces the non-linear approach based on the Appell–Gibbs function. Efficiency of the models is then illustrated for the case of kinematic and random excitation. Interaction of the absorber and the harmonically forced simple linear structure is numerically analysed. Finally, the chapter provides examples of typical patterns of the autoparametric response and outlines possibilities of applications in practical engineering.
Part of the book: Vibration Control of Structures