Underwater acoustic communications are different from terrestrial radio communications; acoustic channel is asymmetric and has large and variable end‐to‐end propagation delays, distance‐dependent limited bandwidth, high bit error rates, and multi‐path fading. Besides, nodes’ mobility and limited battery power also cause problems for networking protocol design. Among them, routing in underwater acoustic networks is a challenging task, and many protocols have been proposed. In this chapter, we first classify the routing protocols according to application scenarios, which are classified according to the number of sinks that an underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) may use, namely single‐sink, multi‐sink, and no‐sink. We review some typical routing strategies proposed for these application scenarios, such as cross‐layer and reinforcement learning as well as opportunistic routing. Finally, some remaining key issues are highlighted.
Part of the book: Underwater Acoustics