About 80% of the world’s oceanic shorelines include diverse types of cliffed and rocky coasts: plunging cliffs, bluffs backing beaches and rocky shore platforms. In combination, approximately 60% of the world’s population lives within 60 km of the coast. Rapidly retreating soft cliffs may be found worldwide and are particularly vulnerable to changes in the forcing factors. The study and analysis of the rate of change in shoreline position through time is important or even imperative for coastal management. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is mainly limited to geomorphological data because of the complex interactions between physical‐chemical processes acting simultaneously in time and space that result in large scale variations. Current historical extrapolation models use historical recession data, but different environments with the same historical values can produce identical annual retreat characteristics despite the potential responses to a changing environment being unequal. For that reason, process‐response models (PRMs) are necessary to provide quantitative predictions of the effects of natural and human‐induced changes that cannot be predicted using other models. Several models are explained and discussed, including a process‐response model, based on real data at Holderness Coast (UK).
Part of the book: Hydro-Geomorphology
Blast loads can represent a great hazard to existing structures. Their effects on structural elements can be decisive for the integrity of both the structure itself and the people within it. The behaviour of the individual elements of a building is totally different due to the heterogeneity of the materials composing them. This fact makes it necessary to carry out tests on each type of structural element in order to correctly evaluate the response of the structure. In addition, the scale effect can produce inaccurate results, making it necessary for tests to be performed on a full scale to validate the results. In this work, the results of several tests with explosives are presented, in different constructive elements, all of them carried out at full scale. These elements range from the structural elements (beams and concrete slabs) to the weak elements of a building (masonry panels).
Part of the book: Fracture Mechanics Applications