During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were initiated to reduce carbon emissions and support clean energy projects. Regulated carbon markets were established to trade carbon premiums produced by these projects by signatory countries, while carbon premiums produced by nonsignatory countries were traded in voluntary markets. Following limited participation in the Kyoto Protocol, by the leadership of European Union, 195 countries presented contributive ideas in Paris Agreement, which is the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate deal. Kyoto Protocol sets commitment targets that have legal force, while the Paris Agreement emphases on consensus building and allows for voluntary and nationally determined targets. Another key difference between Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is its scope. It does not provide a specific division between developed and developing nations. By means of these changes, trading in voluntary carbon markets is expected to increase due to the higher demand to offset unavoidable carbon emissions. There has been no authoritative guidance published on carbon accounting by the International Accounting Standards Board or the Financial Accounting Standards Board. This study proposes how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits.
Part of the book: Accounting and Corporate Reporting