This chapter presents an application of multi-agent systems to simulate tsunami-triggered mass evacuations of large urban areas. The main objective is to quantitatively evaluate various strategies to accelerate evacuation in case of a tsunami with a short arrival time, taking most influential factors into account. Considering the large number of lives in fatal danger, instead of widely used simple agents in 1D networks, we use a high-resolution model of environment and complex agents so that wide range of influencing factors can be taken into account. A brief description of the multi-agent system is provided using a mathematical framework as means to easily and unambiguously refer to the main components of the system. The environment of the multi-agent system, which mimics the physical world of evacuees, is modelled as a hybrid of a high-resolution grid and a graph connecting traversable spaces. This hybrid of raster and vector data structures enables modelling large domain in a scalable manner. The agents, which mimic the heterogeneous crowd of evacuees, are composed of different combinations of basic constituent functions for modelling interaction with each other and environment, decision-making, etc. The results of tuning and validating of constituent functions for pedestrian-pedestrian, car-car and car-pedestrian interactions are presented. A scalable high-performance computing (HPC) extension to address the high-computational demand of complex agents and high-resolution model of environment is briefly explained. Finally, demonstrative applications that highlight the need for including sub-meter details in the environment, different modes of evacuation and behavioural differences are presented.
Part of the book: Multi-agent Systems
This chapter is on rational seismic damage assessment over a wide area through the development of a module for the automated model construction of a pipeline network of lifelines using geographic information system (GIS) data. The module is assigned a functionality that can generate a simple one-dimensional line model and a two-dimensional surface model with high fidelity for the pipe shape. The source code of the module is written in object-oriented programming in order to make it easier to extend it to generate other analysis models. The module was applied to the actual GIS, and the shape of the output model was verified. Numerical analysis was performed on the output of the module, and it showed that the automatically constructed model is mechanically valid and can be used for seismic response analysis.
Part of the book: Earthquakes