The invention of computed tomography (CT) technique revolutionized diagnostic imaging. Compared to conventional X-ray imaging procedures, CT involves higher radiation doses. Recently, cone-beam CT (CBCT) specifically designed for maxillofacial imaging was introduced. CBCT technique is based on a cone-shaped X-ray beam centered on a two-dimensional (2D) detector. The detector system performs one rotation around the patient, producing a series of 2D images which are then reconstructed in a 3D data set. The contemporary knowledge regarding CBCT and its proper application guides the practitioner for improvement in diagnostic purposes and treatment planning. The aim of this chapter is to focus on the details, advantages, drawbacks, and clinical applications of CBCT as a headmost CT imaging technique in the oral and maxillofacial (OMF) region. The main clinical applications of CBCT in the OMF region are dentistry including dentoalveolar and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, endodontics, and periodontics; and otolaryngology. The aforementioned clinical use of CBCT was described in detail with illustrated sample cases. In most of the cases in OMF region, CBCT takes the place of multi-slice CT. Thus, clinicians should know the clinical applications and capabilities of CBCT technique with its drawbacks.
Part of the book: Computed Tomography
Millions of individuals worldwide suffer from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and are characterized by pain and joint dysfunction. TMJ internal derangement (ID) is the most frequent type of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The ID of TMJ is defined as a joint dysfunction associated with an abnormal disc position. Identification and elimination of the causes of tissue breakdown of the TMJ that lead to ID are the key factors for successful treatment. The common causes for TMJ ID are trauma and parafunctional habits which lead to joint overload and degenerative changes in the articular structures, increased friction, and gradual disc displacement. Local and systemic inflammatory/degenerative arthropathies may also affect TMJ and cause ID. The aim of this chapter is to give comprehensive knowledge about the contemporary perspective of TMJ ID including diagnostic and therapeutic developments and innovations. Clinicians should establish the correct diagnosis and cause of the disease for appropriate management so that patients do not suffer from ineffective treatments. As an innovative development, TMJ replacements with alloplastic joint prosthesis and tissue-engineered structures hold promise for the future of management of TMJ ID.
Part of the book: Temporomandibular Joint Pathology