The historical evolution of hot carrier degradation mechanisms and their physical models are reviewed and an energy-driven hot carrier aging model is verified that can reproduce 62-nm-gate-long hot carrier degradation of transistors through consistent aging-parameter extractions for circuit simulation. A long-term hot carrier-resistant circuit design can be realized via optimal driver strength controls. The central role of the V GS ratio is emphasized during practical case studies on CMOS inverter chains and a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) word-line circuit. Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) mechanisms are also reviewed and implemented in a hydrogen reaction-diffusion (R-D) framework. The R-D simulation reproduces time-dependent NBTI degradations interpreted into interface trap generation, Δ N it with a proper power-law dependency on time. The experimental evidence of pre-existing hydrogen-induced Si–H bond breakage is also proven by the quantifying R-D simulation. From this analysis, a low-pressure end-of-line (EOL) anneal can reduce the saturation level of NBTI degradation, which is believed to be caused by the outward diffusion of hydrogen from the gate regions and therefore prevents further breakage of Si–H bonds in the silicon-oxide interfaces.
Part of the book: Very-Large-Scale Integration