This chapter is an extensive review of allergen-based diagnostic methodologies including old techniques such as skin prick test, radio-allergo sorbent test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and fluorescent-enzyme immunosorbent assay. Novel technologies include functional tests by flow cytometry and molecular allergy based on multiplex immunoassays. We also review the importance of biochemical characteristics of allergens, sensitivity and specificity, cross-reaction between allergens, utility, reproducibility, interpretation, and methodologies for discovery of epitopes for diagnostic or therapeutic use.
Part of the book: Allergen
This chapter describes the fundamentals of molecular allergy diagnosis and raises the concept of allergens, allergenic components, and recombinant allergens. In addition, the authors review quality aspects related to the laboratory methodology. In the last part of the chapter, the different singleplex and multiplex platforms currently used for molecular diagnosis are compared. Finally, the diagnostic systems’ challenges, strengths, and pitfalls are discussed to understand their clinical impact. Undoubtedly, this chapter will be handy for the background knowledge for health personnel, allergists/immunologists, and clinical laboratory personnel to guide the selection of diagnostic tests for allergy as well as their interpretation and therapeutic approach.
Part of the book: Allergic Disease