World population is increasing day by day and at the same time agriculture is threatened due to natural resource degradation and climate change. Production stability, agricultural productivity, income and food security is negatively affected by changing climate. Therefore, agriculture must change according to present situation for meeting the need of food security and also withstanding under changing climatic situation. Projected estimates based on food consumption pattern and population growth show that agriculture production will require enhancing by 65% to meet the need of burgeoning population by 2050. Agriculture is a prominent source as well as a sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs). So there is a need to modify agricultural practices in a more sustainable way to overcome these problems. Developing climate‐resilient agriculture is thus crucial to achieving future food security and climate change goals. It helps the agricultural system to resist damage and recover quickly by adaptation and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies reduce the contribution of agriculture system to greenhouse gas emission, and adaptation strategies provide agriculture production under changing scenarios. This chapter explains different mitigation and adaptation strategies, including farming practices and engineering approaches.
Part of the book: Plant Engineering
Traditional practices of growing rice and wheat in Asian countries involve a huge cost in establishment methods adopted by farmers which not only limit the yield and return but also degrade soil and require more water. Adaptation of improved crop establishment methods suitable under adverse climatic conditions is of utmost importance for scientific utilization of natural resources and to maintain the sustainability of rice- wheat cropping system Therefore, an attempt has been made in this chapter to review precision rice establishment methodology viz., direct seeding, non-puddle/unpuddled transplanting, bed transplanting, strip tilled and single pass shallow tilled rice, double transplanting and system of rice intensification (SRI) and wheat establishment methods viz., zero tilled, strip tilled and bed planted wheat. These are recent improved crop establishment techniques that can be used under specific agro-ecological conditions for enhancing yield and resource conservation in Indo-gangetic plains of Eastern India.
Part of the book: Cereal Grains