Esophageal cancer is associated with malnutrition in the vast majority of patients. This phenomenon is partly attributed to the disease process itself, the location of the tumor and other factors, such as dysphagia which is often accentuated due to chemotherapy/radiotherapy treatment or surgical intervention. The poor nutritional status of these patients is often related to the presence of cancer cachexia, altered metabolism, and tissue wasting. Malnutrition in this patient population affects quality of life, worsens patient’s tolerance to chemotherapy and accounts for lower survival. Nutritional management of these patients includes both proper nutritional assessment and support and might prevent, to a certain extent, the manifestation of malnutrition‐related consequences. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature in order to focus on the etiology and diagnosis of malnutrition in esophageal cancer patients, emphasizing also on the optimal nutritional support during multimodality treatment.
Part of the book: Esophageal Abnormalities
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy with cirrhosis preceding its development in most cases. Surgical resection remains the primary therapeutic option despite the recent emergence of locoregional therapies. Novel surgical techniques are being proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional anatomical open liver resection. Laparoscopic resection is a safe and effective alternative to open liver resection, especially for left lateral or peripheral segment tumors. It is associated with less postoperative morbidity, intraoperative blood loss, and medial hospital stay with no difference in oncological outcomes. Robotic-assisted liver resection overcomes the technically difficult resection of tumors located at the posterosuperior segments with similar outcomes to laparoscopic resection. Associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) procedure allows resection in patients with HCC, and associated major vascular resection or small future liver remnant (FLR) with long-term results yet to be announced. For patients with small solitary tumors or poor liver function, nonanatomical liver resection is a feasible therapeutic option due to minimal postoperative morbidity and similar oncological results of anatomical resection.
Part of the book: Liver Cancer