Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world with immense public health consequences. It has a complex etiology and prolonged imbalance between dietary intake, absorption, and body needs which leads to iron deficiency anemia. If developed during pregnancy, it significantly alters pregnancy outcomes. Low birth weight is one of the main features, and those infants are at increased risk of developing anemia later in life. Along with widely recommended and practiced supplementation during pregnancy, proper combination of foods remain the best way for an optimal absorption of iron. Dietary iron is directly related to the total dietary energy intake, but depending on the type of its dietary source, maximum absorption is up to 40% of the total intake. Plant foods, the basis of everyday diet, contain significant number of dietary factors that inhibit iron absorption in the gut. Therefore, planning a well-balanced diet in order to achieve maximum absorption of iron from foods can be challenging. Pregnancy, especially its earliest period, is considered as the critical window in fetal programing, an ideal time frame to reduce risk factors for a number of health conditions in a newborn. Healthy pregnancy should be observed as a prerequisite for a healthier society.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Anemia
Chronic pain is a noteworthy health issue with immense impact on global healthcare systems. Although this issue has not come into the limelight as other noncommunicable diseases, it should be highlighted that modern medicine still has no efficient treatment to curb chronic pain. In this aspect, essential oils have been used for the prevention of several disease conditions including pain management. These odorous products, obtained from botanically defined raw material, have a variable and complex composition. Their composition largely depends on the extraction technique used, from simple hydro-distillation, to supercritical or microwave-assisted extraction. Monoterpenoids are some of the most biologically active and highly researched compounds when it comes to antinociceptive effects. They are volatile oils, primarily composed of two isoprene units with highly distinctive aromas and flavors. More than 90% of the essential oils of medicinal plants consist of monoterpenoids like limonene, myrcene, α-terpineol, linalool, pinene, p-cymene, and nerol. Besides strong anti-inflammatory effect, all essential oils with high D-limonene content pose a significant free radical scavenging effect, predominantly disabling the production of reactive oxygen species. Further studies in humans are encouraged to determine the real long-term potential in treating chronic pain.
Part of the book: Pain Management