Balanced nutrition is the key point of a healthy life includes intake of vitamins and minerals. Vitamins such as folate (B9) have an important role in system homeostasis. Vitamin B derivatives, also folate are water-soluble vitamin class which plays a key role in cell metabolism. Folate is necessary to produce new cells via stimulating DNA and RNA methylation. Folate has positive effect on recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingival hyperplasia, preventing early childhood caries and periodontal diseases. Alveolar bone and periodontal ligament development are related to sufficient concentrations of folate. Folate reduces gum bleeding, and increases osteoblastic activity and bone mineral density, also decreases osteoclastic activity. Effect on DNA and RNA metabolism causes the reduction of reactive oxygen species. In early stages of pregnancy, folate deficiency may cause birth anomalies due to neural tube defects such as lip, alveolar and palatal clefts. Folate deficiency effects on DNA and RNA metabolism negatively. DNA and RNA repair, production and methylation system is being interrupted. Therefore chromosal abnormalities occur and that situation may cause cancer and leukemia. Folate is mainly provides systemic homeostasis and important for maintaining chromosomal activities. Consequently adequate concentrations of folate must be taken regularly.
Part of the book: B Group Vitamins
Ozone (triatomic oxygen or trioxygen) is the combination of three naturally occurring oxygen atoms. Ozone therapy is an alternative to traditional approaches in dentistry. The main feature suggests that ozone can be used in dentistry as a strong antimicrobial agent. In addition, ozone has antimicrobial, immune system regulatory, metabolic rate, and biosynthesis-enhancing effects. Ozone affects cellular and humoral immunity. It has positive effects on oxygen transport in the body; production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and production of enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Ozone use in dentistry can be made possible via ozone gas, ozonated water, ozonized olive, or sunflower oil. Ozone is used in periodontology (gingivitis, periodontitis, periimplantitis, surgical injuries, prophylaxis), oral pathologies (stomatitis, aphthous ulceration, candidiasis, herpes infections), endodontics (root canal treatment, the fistula, abscesses), oral surgery (hemostasis, wound healing, implantation, reimplantation, tooth extraction), prosthodontics (disinfection of crowns, disinfection of the alloy part of partial dentures), orthodontics (TME function disorders, trismus, myoarthropathies), and restorative dentistry (caries, dentine hypersensitivity, cracked tooth syndrome, bleaching, disinfection of cavity). As a result of the studies performed, ozone therapy in dentistry should be considered as an aid to conventional treatments.
Part of the book: Ozone in Nature and Practice
Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a disease characterized by rapid loss of periodontal tissues affecting systemically healthy individuals under age of 30 years. AgP classified into two categories named localized and generalized aggressive periodontitis. It differs from chronic periodontitis (CP) depending on age of onset of the disease, rate of progression of the disease, structure and composition of the associated subgingival microflora, changes in host response and familial predisposition. Tissue destruction in patients with AgP is not directly related to bacterial deposits also personal immune response plays a major role in severity of destruction. Surgical and non-surgical techniques can be applied in the treatment of AgP. It is important to treat and obtain frequent controls of individuals with AgP. The main purpose of the treatment is to create a clinical condition that can hold the largest number of teeth in the mouth. After the treatment performed and provided the health of periodontal tissues, patient should be included in the maintenance program.
Part of the book: Periodontology and Dental Implantology