Immune niche with its huge cell diversity including more specifically tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) regulate osteosarcoma (OS) microenvironment. TAMs exert differential activities in the tumour development according to their polarisation. Indeed, in oncology, M1-polarised macrophages are considered as anti-tumour effectors, and M2-polarised macrophages are defined as pro-tumour modulators by increasing the neoangiogenic process. TAM density is correlated with tumour cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various epithelial and haematological cancers and in bone metastasis. Similarly, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes play a key role in tumour development by inducing a local tolerant environment favourable for the tumour growth. The present chapter will describe the main roles of the immune system in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma and the most recent therapeutic development based on its regulation.
Part of the book: Osteosarcoma