Risks of natural and anthropogenic disasters can appear at any moment without warning. All levels of government agencies from federal to township, and the systems of the specialized agencies, like weather-specialists, flood control, electricity suppliers, and educational organizations are standardized and the communication has been improving. The systems of the governments and agencies, meteorologists, flood control, electricity suppliers, and educational organizations are standardized and the communication has been improving. In this chapter, government manuals, procedures for agencies and professional responders, and public awareness, perceptions, and capabilities, are reviewed in three international cities: Seoul, Tokyo, and Toronto. Each city is unique with experiences of different disasters. Communication of supports and vital information of risks without understanding the language and culture of the people may lead the public to large-scale panic. Individuals can access government websites and interpret the information, like WebGIS maps, and risks by themselves. In terms of risk communication, all urbanized cities require their own specialized risk management with reasonably effective technologies, which enhance community resilience. Even better is to have a measure of development for the care of the public after the disaster to help the people get back on their feet, such as various public insurances.
Part of the book: Perspectives on Risk, Assessment and Management Paradigms