Radioiodine (RAI) is becoming the preferred treating option for benign thyroid diseases. Hyperthyroidism is defined as hypermetabolic state caused by high levels of circulating thyroid hormones of the thyroid gland. The most common hyperthyroidism causes are Graves’ disease, toxic multinodular goitre, and solitary hyperfunctioning nodule, for which RAI can be preferred as a definitive treatment option. It is rapidly incorporated into the thyroid and with its beta emissions with a path length of 1–3 mm cause extensive local tissue damage and necrosis. The thyroid gland is effectively ablated over a period of 8–18 weeks and can no more produce normal amount of thyroid hormones. It is an individualized therapy that can either be a first-line therapy, or an alternative therapy to neck surgery or to use of antithyroidal drugs after 1 year. For the optimal efficiency, before the RAI treatment, the patients should be extensively assessed and they also should be given clear information about the treatment, as well as written instructions for precautions to avoid irradiation exposure to other people. Moreover, after RAI treatment patients should have their regular follow-up. This chapter summarizes all the points for a RAI treatment.
Part of the book: Radionuclide Treatments