Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a hormone-producing malignant tumor that synthesizes calcitonin. MTC can be sporadic or familial. It has a malignant behavior. Our chapter has 3 parts: 1.Updates on the diagnosis of MTC -in this part we review the clinical findings in MTC: isolated thyroid nodule, palpable cervical lymph nodes and systemic manifestations. Fine needle aspiration, serum calcitonin, computed tomography (CT) and fludeoxyglucose - positron emission tomograpyh (FDG-PET) are summarized. Biomarkers with prognostic value are be described in detail: plasma calcitonin, carcino-embryonic antigen, germ-line RET mutation and matrix metalloproteinase. 2. Updates on the management and treatment of MTC -we discuss the surgical treatment, radiation therapy, systemic therapy with angiogenesis inhibitors and transcatheter arterial embolization to prevent extension of the tumor. Based on the characteristics of MTC a new approach using gene therapy has been developed to obtain complete remission of the carcinoma. 3. We describe a typical case of MTC from the oncology department, with cervical lymph nodes and a thyroid nodule. Immunohistochemistry staining showed calcitonin in the tumor cells. Thyroid ultrasound with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the MTC. CT images of the cervical lymph nodes and thyroid nodule as well as microscopy images are presented. Chemotherapy with Dacarbazine was initiated with favorable outcome.
Part of the book: Head and Neck Cancer