Phosphorylation of ecto‐domains of membrane proteins and extracellular matrix proteins, which is termed ecto‐phosphorylation, activates intracellular signalling and has roles in several physiological processes including cell adhesion, fertilisation and fibrinolysis. We demonstrated that ecto‐phosphorylation can promote endogenous neurogenesis in the damaged central nervous system (CNS), augmenting its functional recovery. Thus, regulation of ecto‐phosphorylation could be a platform for development of therapeutic methods against CNS injury. Regeneration of the damaged CNS is long‐awaited. While transplantation of neuronal progenitor cells is expected to be the first platform to develop the therapy, the potential of endogenous neurogenesis as a source of new neurons has been expected to be an inexpensive and non‐invasive regenerative medicine for CNS injury. In this review, we focused on the spinal cord as a model of CNS recovery from traumatic injury. The spinal cord is the simplest part of the CNS and its function is well known. Therefore, estimation of recovery is easier than other part of the CNS. Firstly, we introduce endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult spinal cord and their behaviour after injury and then discuss effects of ecto‐phosphorylation, which induces regeneration of the adult spinal cord.
Part of the book: Protein Phosphorylation