Studying biochemical indicators in response to various environmental factors allows revealing the metabolic adaptive strategy of the organism’s tolerance and survival under a variety of environmental impacts. This review analyses both the authors’ own data and the available literature on the problem of biochemical adaptations of the lipid composition in marine bivalves, particularly blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., to various environmental impacts. Modifications in the composition of lipids and their fatty acids in blue mussels caused by short-term (under laboratory conditions) and chronic (field monitoring) exposure to natural and human factors indicate that homeostasis is maintained in cell membranes and the organism’s energy requirements and facilitate the adaptation and tolerance of the mussels to environmental disturbances. The lipid and fatty acid composition indices in White Sea intertidal mussels which reflect their chronic exposure to a wide variety of environmental factors are discussed and compared to data on changes in the lipid composition of blue mussels exposed to some environmental factors (salinity, anoxia, metals) in aquarium experiments. The lipid profile plays an important role in the adaptation of blue mussels to new conditions in the habitat, and it can be used as a biochemical marker for indicating the organism’s physiological state.
Part of the book: Organismal and Molecular Malacology