Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a disease that makes people’s lives miserable with unknown etiology. In recent years, there have been many studies trying to explain the etiology of CSU, and many of them reported that there are some comorbidities or triggering factors related to CSU. However, it has not been clearly known yet that whether these conditions are true comorbidities associated with CSU or they are coincidentally found at the same time. In this chapter, related comorbidities and conditions have been told.
Part of the book: Urticaria and Angioedema
Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare distinctive subepidermal bullous disease seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It has characteristical clinic, pathologic, and immunologic findings including antibodies to type VII collagen, laminin 332, laminin 331, and bullous pemphigoid antigen 230. Clinical presentation combined with histopathology, immunological testing, and concomitant diagnosis of SLE according to the criteria of American College of Rheumatology, are required to distinguish bullous SLE from these bullous diseases. In patients with bullous SLE, SLE disease progression and complications may be worse. Cicatricial pemphigoid is a chronic subepidermal blistering disease which is characterized by erosive lesions of mucous membranes and skin. Pathogenesis of cicatricial pemphigoid is characterized by linear deposition of Immunoglobulin G, A, or complement 3 along the epithelial basement membrane zone. The main target antigens are bullous pemphigoid antigens 180–230, laminin 331–332, type VII collagen, and β-4 integrin subunit. Cicatricial pemphigoid may lead to serious complications such as blindness and airway obstruction. Herein, clinical, histological, immunopathological features, the diagnosis and treatment of bullous SLE and cicatricial pemphigoid diseases are mentioned to raise awareness among the dermatologists about this important but rare heterogeneous bullous disease.
Part of the book: Autoimmune Bullous Diseases