The nature of Hd3a protein in rice and its ortholog FT in Arabidopsis as a florigen has been proposed. However, molecular mechanism of its function still remains to be investigated. Therefore, it is important to search their interaction partners to better understand their signaling in flowering. As a long-distance signal that moves along leaf cells and the vascular system of leaves and stem and exerts its action in apical buds, it is important to determine the possible mediators of such common responses activated by Hd3a. To search Hd3a interactor, yeast two-hybrid screening have performed by using a cDNA library. A wide range of Hd3a interacting proteins involved in signaling were identified, including GF14c, OsKANADI and the BRI1 kinase domain interacting protein 116b (BIP116b). To reveal its function, Hd3a recruits different protein in plant developmental stage. It is possible that Hd3a and its partner(s) may form a platform for cross-talk between signal transduction pathways. Another homolog of Hd3a in many plants was identified and sugessted that Hd3a/FT has versatile role in plant development. This role depend on its partner and interaction to achieve its function. Our understanding in floral transition in rice would make for better crop management in future.
Part of the book: Plant Engineering
Improving the quality and quantity of an organism and its products can be approached by molecular characters enhancement through the insertion of a gene of interest into cells of the desired organism. Genetic transformation of an organism involves isolation, identification, cloning a gene of interest into a vector, and transferring the gene to the target organism. This chapter reviews the process of genetic transformation into the organism’s cell from bacterial (Escherichia coli), yeast, plant (Onion, Tobacco, and Orchids), and mammalian. The discussion will be focused on the introduction of DNA molecules into plant cells and protoplast mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), electroporation, and gene gun using particle bombardment. Further discussion on the transient protein expression system of plant-based on protoplast, onion cell, and tobacco will also be covered in this chapter as well. The systems have been proven as a powerful tool for determining subcellular protein localization, protein-protein interactions, identifying gene function, and regulation. Finally, it can be clearly seen, the differences and similarities in the mechanism of genetic transformation both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
Part of the book: Molecular Cloning