Amphiphilic ionic perylenediimides (AIPDIs) with well‐defined structures have been widely studied, which involve abundant non‐covalent interactions. Among these interactions, electrostatic interactions serve as the primary force that may be followed by other non‐covalent interactions like π–π stacking. Taking advantage of these tunable interactions between simple AIPDI‐building blocks, AIPDIs are widely used for constructing increasingly complex structures at varying scales. Besides, AIPDIs with outstanding photochemical stability exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields (FQYs) in aqueous solution, because hydrophilic substituents of AIPDIs can shield the inner perylene chromophores and weaken π–π stacking, contributing to the improvement of water solubility and the suppression of aggregation‐caused quenching (ACQ). AIPDIs with excellent water solubility, strong FQYs and desired interactions with charged components in cells and tissues hold great promise for various biomedical applications, which can be concluded in three hierarchical levels, which is in vitro, live cell and tissue.
Part of the book: Molecular Self-assembly in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology