Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most frequent malignancy of the biliary tract, representing about 85–90% of the cancers involving this anatomical district; it is characterized by high mortality rates with less than 10% of the sufferers surviving more than 5 years. Extensive scientific research is needed in order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis, improve the treatment options available, and assess new effective therapies. Consistent improvements have been made in recent years in the field of noncoding RNAs. More than 90% of the human genome is constituted by a noncoding portion that actively transcribes an enormous and complex amount of RNA, while only approximately 2% represents the coding genes. Noncoding RNAs are divided into two categories in accordance with their dimensions: small RNAs, which are made by less than 200 nucleotides, and long RNAs, which are bigger. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) are the main subclasses, respectively, which concentrate consistent scientific efforts in recent times with promising results in several diseases, including cancer. In this review, we summarize the roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs in gallbladder cancer pathophysiology and their possible translational implication in the diagnosis and treatment of this aggressive disease.
Part of the book: Updates in Gallbladder Diseases