The primary purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate one of the applications of P300 event-related potential (ERP), i.e., brain-computer interface (BCI). Researchers and students will find the chapter appealing with a preliminary description of P300 ERP. This chapter also appreciates the importance and advantages of noninvasive ERP technique. In noninvasive BCI, the P300 ERPs are extracted from brain electrical activities [electroencephalogram (EEG)] as a signature of the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of brain responses to the external or internal changes and events. As the chapter proceeds, topics are covered on more relevant scholarly works about challenges and new directions in P300 BCI. Along with these, articles with the references on the advancement of this technique will be presented to ensure that the scholarly reviews are accessible to people who are new to this field. To enhance fundamental understanding, stimulation as well as signal processing methods will be discussed from some novel works with a comparison of the associated results. This chapter will meet the need for a concise and practical description of basic, as well as advanced P300 ERP techniques, which is suitable for a broad range of researchers extending from today’s novice to an experienced cognitive researcher.
Part of the book: Event-Related Potentials and Evoked Potentials
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is an emerging field, and an increasing number of BCI research projects are being carried globally to interface computer with human using EEG for useful operations in both healthy and locked persons. Although several methods have been used to enhance the BCI performance in terms of signal processing, noise reduction, accuracy, information transfer rate, and user acceptability, the effective BCI system is still in the verge of development. So far, various modifications on single BCI systems as well as hybrid are done and the hybrid BCIs have shown increased but insufficient performance. Therefore, more efficient hybrid BCI models are still under the investigation by different research groups. In this review chapter, single BCI systems are briefly discussed and more detail discussions on hybrid BCIs, their modifications, operations, and performances with comparisons in terms of signal processing approaches, applications, limitations, and future scopes are presented.
Part of the book: Evolving BCI Therapy