The aim of this work is to study physical and chemical properties of nanostructured multi-layered composite coating based on three-layered architecture, deposited to a carbide substrate, as well as to study the mechanism of wear and failure of coated carbide tools under the conditions of stationary cutting. The coating were obtained by the method of filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD). Here, the microstructure of coating as well as its hardness, strength of the adhesive bond to the substrate, chemical composition and phase composition were investigated on a transverse cross-section of experimental samples. The studies of cutting properties of the carbide inserts with developed coatings was conducted on a lathe in longitudinal turning of steel C45 (HB 200). The analysis of mechanisms of wear and failure of coated tool was carried out, including the processes of diffusion and oxidation in the surface layers of the coated substrate. Tools with harder and less ductile coatings showed less steady kinetics of wear, characterized by sharp intensification of wear and failure in transition from “steady” to drastic wear, i.e., at the end of the tool life. The X-ray microanalysis showed a considerable increase in oxygen content in the transverse cracks in the coating.
Part of the book: Nanostructured Materials
The wear and failure mechanism for multilayered nanostructured coatings has a number of significant differences from the one typical for monolithic single-layered coatings. In particular, while the strength of adhesion bonds at the “substrate-coating” boundary is important for monolithic coatings, then for multilayered nanostructured coatings, the strength of adhesion and cohesion bonds at interlayer boundaries and boundaries of separate nano-sublayers becomes of significant significance. Meanwhile, the delamination arising in the structure of multilayered nanostructured coatings can have both negative (leading to loss of coating uniformity and subsequent failure of coating) and positive influences (due to decrease of internal stresses and inhibition of transverse cracking). Various mechanisms of formation of longitudinal cracks and delaminations in coatings on rake tool faces, which vary based on the compositions and architectures of the coatings, are studied. In addition, the influence of internal defects, including embedded microdrops and pores, on the formation of cracks and delaminations and the failure of coatings is discussed. The importance of ensuring a balance of the basic properties of coatings to achieve high wear resistance and maximum tool life of coated metal-cutting tools is shown. The properties of coatings and the natures of their failures, as investigated during scratch testing and dry turning of steel C45, are provided.
Part of the book: Novel Nanomaterials
This chapter considers the methods to increase the performance and reliability of the reprofile machining of the wheel tread profile. Proceeding from the fact that both in milling and turning, the cutting tool is a key element to ensure performance and reliability of the manufacturing process, the study considers the methods to increase the performance properties of cutting tools. In particular, the study includes the investigation of the following ways to improve cutting tools (carbide inserts) to machine wheel tread profile: replacement of traditional grades of WC-TiC-Co carbides with more efficient ones based on WC-TiC-TaC-Co; application of special thermally conductive pads, gaskets, and pastes to improve the distribution of heat flows in the cutting zone; and application of modern nanoscale composite multilayer coatings (NMCC). It is noted that even higher performance can be obtained by combining the above three methods, in particular, by combining application of special thermal pads and NMCC.
Part of the book: High-Speed Rail
The chapter discusses the tribological properties of samples with multilayer composite nanostructured Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al,Si)N, Zr-ZrN-(Nb,Zr,Cr,Al)N, and Zr-ZrN-(Zr,Al,Si)N coatings, as well as Ti-TiN-(Ti,Al,Cr)N, with different values of the nanolayer period λ. The relationship between tribological parameters, a temperature varying within a range of 20–1000°C, and λ was investigated. The studies have found that the adhesion component of the coefficient of friction (COF) varies nonlinearly with a pronounced extremum depending on temperature. The value of λ has a noticeable influence on the tribological properties of the coatings, and the nature of the mentioned influence depends on temperature. The tests found that for the coatings with all studied values of λ, an increase in temperature first caused an increase and then a decrease in COF.
Part of the book: Tribology in Materials and Manufacturing