The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway regulates various cellular processes during tissue and organ development and homeostasis. Deregulation of the expression and/or functions of TGF-β ligands, receptors or their intracellular signaling components leads to multiple diseases including vascular pathologies, autoimmune disorders, fibrosis and cancer. In vascular development, physiology and disease TGF-β signaling can have angiogenic and angiostatic properties, depending on expression levels and the tissue context. The objective of this chapter is to analyze the mechanisms that contribute to the activation and signaling of TGF-β in developmental, physiological and pathological angiogenesis, with a particular emphasis on the importance of TGF-β signaling in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).
Part of the book: Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis