In this chapter, nanoplasmonic waveguides filled with electro-optical materials are proposed and discussed. Rigorous theoretical modelling is developed to describe the propagation, generation and control of electromagnetic fields confined in these nanoscale waveguides. Two configurations are studied thoroughly. First, a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanoplasmonic waveguide filled with lithium niobate (i.e., LiNbO3) is considered for compact terahertz (THz) generation. The waveguide is designed to generate Gaussian THz waves by the means of frequency down-conversion of two surface plasmon polariton (i.e., SPP) modes. THz generation is shown to be viable over the entire range from 1 to 10 THz by properly designing the SPP wavelengths and waveguide dimensions. Future applications of such nanoscale THz sources include nanocommunication systems and body-centric networks. Secondly, an MIM nanoplasmonic waveguide filled with doped LiNbO3 is considered. The interaction between two interfering SPP modes is studied. It is shown that a strong symmetric SPP mode can be coupled to a weak antisymmetric SPP mode by the means of photorefractive effect. Future advances include implementing known photorefractive applications (such as interferometry and holography) in the nanoplasmonic field. The work of this chapter highlights the potential of functioning electro-optical materials in nanoplasmonic waveguides to achieve novel ultra-compact and efficient devices.
Part of the book: Nanoplasmonics