The prevalence of mental disorders between children and adolescents is 10–20% worldwide. Research has shown that most mental disorders begin at childhood and adolescence. Neurodevelopmental disorders are classified by which the development of the central nervous system is disturbed and are associated with varying degrees of consequences in one’s mental, emotional, physical, and economic states. Recently, research in mental health, neurobiology, and early childhood development supported the case for early intervention and prevention. The causes of mental disorders in children and adolescents are not currently known, but research suggests that a combination of factors that include heredity, biology, psychological trauma, spiritual well-being, and environmental stress might be involved. There are many factors that play into child and adolescent mental health and disorders; therefore, individualized, personalized, and integrative approaches are necessary in therapeutic interventions and prevention. Thus, by ensuring that the needed mental health care competencies are made available in each primary health care team and by assuring fully integrated mental health and other types of health care, primary health care teams would best provide early, efficient, effective, and optimal recovery-based care.
Part of the book: Child and Adolescent Mental Health