Inflammation causes debilitating human conditions and older treatments rely on global immunosuppression that non‐specifically alleviates symptoms. Currently, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are available that specifically block pro‐inflammatory cytokines. These include mAbs specific to tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)‐1β, IL‐6, IL‐17 and IL‐12/IL‐23. The chapter summarises the key elements in human inflammatory disease conditions, including various forms of arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, plus pyrin‐associated inflammatory syndromes and periodic fevers, to explain the benefit of cytokine neutralisation through mAb‐type reagents. The chapter reviews the efficacy and safety of the current repertoire of anti‐cytokine/cytokine receptor mAbs. It also discusses the known side effects and adverse events that are sometimes associated with systemic blockade of cytokines in vivo, and concludes that the accumulating knowledge of treatment failures can reveal unappreciated aspects of cytokine biology and even new treatment opportunities. The chapter includes mention of the rapidly expanding cohort of biosimilar mAbs and the mAbs to IL‐4, IL‐5 and IL‐13 that are now emerging, in addition to the need for treatments for disorders that remain refractory to the current repertoire of anti‐cytokine mAbs and conventional treatments. Thus, here we summarise the current status of anti‐cytokine mAbs for human inflammatory diseases.
Part of the book: Immunotherapy