Trichinellosis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by round worms of the genus Trichinella. The majority of human outbreaks are attributed to consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat contaminated with T. spiralis muscle larvae. A blocking-transmission vaccine against trichinellosis will allow preventing swine infection and will contribute to disease control. In this chapter, different vaccine candidates so far developed against T. spiralis, including first-, second-, and third-generation vaccines, are discussed. Most vaccine candidates are based on a unique antigen mainly from the muscle larva stage, inducing with some exceptions, partial protection although a mix Th1/Th2 immune response is elicited. Therefore, the need for identification of new antigens from different parasite stages focusing on infective intestinal larvae, adult, and newborn larvae stages as well as the evaluation of their protective capacity in pigs is presented. The design of multi-epitope vaccines and the use of adjuvants or immunomodulatory molecules capable to polarize the immune response to a Th2-type-protective response are discussed as imperative elements of modern vaccines. Plant-based vaccines and probiotics as excellent tools for vaccine development against T. spiralis are also presented as an attractive platform for veterinary vaccines.
Part of the book: Natural Remedies in the Fight Against Parasites
Vaccines are the pharmaceutical products that offer the best cost‐benefit ratio in the prevention or treatment of diseases. In that a vaccine is a pharmaceutical product, vaccine development and production are costly and it takes years for this to be accomplished. Several approaches have been applied to reduce the times and costs of vaccine development, mainly focusing on the selection of appropriate antigens or antigenic structures, carriers, and adjuvants. One of these approaches is the incorporation of bioinformatics methods and analyses into vaccine development. This chapter provides an overview of the application of bioinformatics strategies in vaccine design and development, supplying some successful examples of vaccines in which bioinformatics has furnished a cutting edge in their development. Reverse vaccinology, immunoinformatics, and structural vaccinology are described and addressed in the design and development of specific vaccines against infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. These include some emerging or re‐emerging infectious diseases, as well as therapeutic vaccines to fight cancer, allergies, and substance abuse, which have been facilitated and improved by using bioinformatics tools or which are under development based on bioinformatics strategies.
Part of the book: Vaccines