Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most severe public health problems in the world. In recent years, evidences show a commonness of utilization of alternative medicines such as phytomedicine for the treatment of T2DM. Phenolic acids are the most common compounds in non-flavonoid group of phenolic compounds and have been suggested to have a potential to lower the risk of T2DM. Skeletal muscle is the major organ that contributes to the pathophysiology of T2DM. Studies have shown that several phenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid) have antidiabetic effects, and these compounds have been implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, especially glucose transport. Glucose transport is a major regulatory step for whole-body glucose disposal, and the glucose transport processes are regulated mainly through two different systems: insulin-dependent and insulin-independent mechanism. In this chapter, we reviewed recent experimental evidences linking phenolic acids to glucose metabolism focusing on insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport systems and the upstream signaling events in skeletal muscle.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds
Glycation stress (glycative stress) is a general concept of biological stress caused by a series of non-enzymatic glycation reactions, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation, AGEs accumulation, glycation-associated dysfunction of proteins and cellular signaling, inflammation, oxidation, and/or tissue damage. There has been increasing evidence supporting a profound effect of AGEs on human diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, and dementia, as well as aging process itself. In addition, dietary AGEs intake has also been suggested to contribute to tissue dysfunction and development of the diseases. Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and important responsibility for maintaining our health as not only locomotor system but also metabolic and endocrine systems. Especially in past decades, numerous studies have suggested the contribution of glycation stress to skeletal muscle dysfunctions (e.g. muscle atrophy, reducing contractile property, and insulin resistance). In this chapter, we provide current evidence on the potential role of glycation stress in the impairment of skeletal muscle functions.
Part of the book: Psychology and Pathophysiological Outcomes of Eating