Intracerebral hematoma occurs in about 35/100,000 population and the incidence is likely increase over the next few decades as the population ages. The most common causes are hypertension and amyloid angiopathy. Bleeds due to these two causes are classified as primary while all other causes, such as AVM bleeds, coagulopathies, and so on, are classified as secondary. Primary tissue damage due to the intracerebral hematoma is followed by edema, neuronal damage, and secondary damage due to cellular breakdown. Basal ganglia are the most common site of intracerebral hemorrhage, accounting for nearly 50% of cases. CT scan, CT angiogram, DSA, and MRI are the investigations of choice. The initial management is medical, with control of blood pressure and antiedema measures forming the mainstay of treatment. Surgical option includes external ventricular drainage, endoscopic evacuation of hematoma, craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma, and decompressive craniectomy and is usually reserved for patients who deteriorate while on treatment.
Part of the book: Hemorrhagic Stroke