Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanoparticles have exhibited remarkable thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. This review is concerned with a narrow sector of polymer nanocomposites, namely those based on engineering polyesters, which are of great industrial interest. The various functionalization methods of modifying carbon nanotubes and graphene derivative forms to allow interacting with polymer matrices will be summarized. Moreover, the review on the processing techniques of obtaining polymer nanocomposites with the emphasis of their effect on the final properties of the obtained material will be highlighted. The light will be also shed on the nanofiller dispersion in the polymer matrix. Finally, the opportunities and challenges in the high‐performance polymer nanocomposites will be presented.
Part of the book: Functionalized Nanomaterials
The use of fillers in order to enhance the properties of polymers has been already well documented. Fundamentally, traditional fillers were applied to reduce the cost of the final polymeric products. Moreover, most micron-sized fillers required high loading for slight properties enhancement, thus causing problems in processing and melt flow due to the high viscosity of the obtained composite. Nanofillers might constitute the answer to the requirements made to the modern polymer materials. Nanofillers in the range of 3–5 wt% achieve the same reinforcement as 20–30 wt% of micron-sized fillers. Therefore, this study presents the influence of three different types of nanofillers that differ in shape (aspect ratio) on the morphology, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability of polyester thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) matrix, by means of poly(trimethylene)-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide) copolymer (PTT-PTMO). The morphology in this copolymer consisted of semicrystalline PTT domains dispersed in the soft phase of amorphous, noncrystallisable PTMO. The PTT-PTMO copolymer has been combined with 0.5 wt% of 1D (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC) nanofibers), 2D (graphene oxide (GO), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)), and 3D (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)) through in situ synthesis to obtain nanocomposites (NCs) samples.
Part of the book: Elastomers