Cells have a direct relation to understanding cattle genetic information aside from the cell’s main role of housing genetic material. Gene presence being visible through phenotypic characteristics of living organisms allows for researchers to pinpoint specific genetic markers to access and evaluate the genetic information for desired visible traits. On a molecular level, through the interaction between cattle embryos and bovine cells, researchers can pair this information with current technological innovation to better understand on how genetics are manipulated naturally by environmental elements, which can have a direct effect on countries where cattle milk and meat production are the major contributors to economic stability. This overview of past, current, and potential future research involving cells can provide an understanding of the importance in cells and their relationship with biotechnology innovation. Through techniques involving cells and genetic analysis, various methods can be utilized to overcome limitations of cattle reproduction and increase the presence of desirable cattle traits, which in turn not only aid in the economic success of countries dependent on cattle products, but can also open the door to human therapeutics.
Part of the book: Trends and Advances in Veterinary Genetics
Besides several mechanisms such as autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, programmed cell death (PCD) also includes apoptosis which is characterized by membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation which involves a number of membrane receptors and a cascade of signal transduction steps resulting in the activation of an ample number of proteases known as caspases. Even though this mechanism plays a significant role in the progressions of gamete maturation and embryo development, contributing to the formation of different organs and structures, they also lead to the death of blastomeres and, consequently, the occurrence of structural abnormalities, increasing embryo and fetal mortality. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in apoptosis dysregulation may contribute to the development of new therapeutic methods to prevent various developmental abnormalities. The purpose of this chapter is to review recent research into the mechanisms of programmed cell death, focusing on apoptosis during embryo development leading to embryo mortality. The final section includes a discussion of the implication of the findings for future research on reducing embryo mortality in the bovine.
Part of the book: New Insights into Theriogenology
Throughout this chapter, we will express the embryonic development from fertilization, commonly called conception, to the implantation. It is well documented that preimplantation is considered a critical period for embryo development in ruminants, in which high pregnancy loss occurs; in fact, several authors point out that 50–75% of blastocysts fail to implant. The high rate of implantation failure is one reason why pregnancy typically requires on average two ovulation cycles to achieve. Events involved in the embryo growth and survival are directly or indirectly related to cytokines, steroids, metabolites, and growth factors. When one of these compounds fails, it normally leads to the death of the embryo or fetus. As known, the period required for full development of a fetus in utero is referred to as gestation, and it is commonly subdivided into two distinct periods. The first 2 weeks of prenatal development are referred to as the pre-embryonic stage. By the end of the embryonic period, all of the organ systems are structured in rudimentary form, and the embryo shifts to the fetus from the ninth week of gestation until birth.
Part of the book: Embryology